It is not hard to understand why President Clinton gave tribute to Carroll Quigley in his nomination speech at the Democratic Party Convention. Quigley graduated magna cum laude with MA and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard. He was even in Ripley's Believe It or Not for being Harvard's youngest person to receive a Ph.D. After teaching at Harvard and Princeton he went to Georgetown where for 28 consecutive years alumni selected him as their most influential professor. Dean of The School of Foreign Service, Dr. Peter F. Krough aptly states, 'He was one of the last of the great macro-historians who traced the development of civilization...with awesome capability.' With his teachings, Clinton and other aspirants have aligned themselves in positions of influence. As Quigley espoused, 'Look at the real situations which lie beneath the conceptual and verbal symbols.'
As of his death in 1977 Dr. Carroll Quigley is no longer with us, yet Tragedy and Hope is a hallmark of history, a classic to be owned by those who care to know of the forces that have shaped and are shaping history.
Carroll Quigley's Tragedy and Hope: A History Of The World In Our Time.
When Carroll Quigley was still living in April of 1971, Phyllis Schlafly in The Phyllis Schlafly Report wrote a commentary on Tragedy and Hope.
Who is really running things in America? What is the hidden, powerful force that seems to control U.S. policies no matter who is elected? The overwhelming majority of Americans oppose foreign giveaways. What is the hidden force that persuades Congress to vote at least $10 billion in foreign giveaways year after year after year, in direct opposition to the wishes of their constituents?
Dr. Quigley is an authority on the world's secret power structure because HE IS ONE OF THE INSIDERS. He boasts that he has been associated with many of the dynastic families of the super-rich. He writes approvingly of their power, influence, and activities. To assure his readers of his own unique qualifications for the writing of this book, Dr. Quigley states: 'I know of the operations of this network because I have studied it for twenty years and was permitted for two years, in the early 1960's, to examine its papers and secret records. I have no aversion to it or to most of its aims and have, for much of my life, been close to it and to many of its instruments. I have objected, both in the past and recently, to a few of its policies. . . but in general my chief difference of opinion is that it wishes to remain unknown, and I believe its role in history is significant enough to be known.'
In other words, Dr. Quigley is one of those on the inside of the 'network,' and his chief disagreement with his associates is that he wants to tell what the 'network' is doing, and the others want to remain secret. Hence the book, Tragedy and Hope, in which Dr. Quigley 'tells all,' thereby exposing one of the best-kept secrets in the world. The 'Hope' in the title represents the man-made millennium of a collectivist one-world society which the world will enjoy when the 'network' achieves its goal of ruling the world. He says the 'network' already has such power and influence that it is now too late for the little people to turn back the tide. All who resist represent the 'Tragedy.'
He urges us not to fight the noose which is already around our necks, because if we do we will only choke ourselves to death.
1.Who Runs The Establishment. The greatest value of Tragedy and Hope is that it constitutes a bold and boastful admission BY ONE ON THE INSIDE of the Establishment that there actually exists a relatively small but powerful group which has succeeded in acquiring a choke-hold on the affairs of America and Europe. Dr. Quigley identified this group as the 'international bankers,' men who are quite 'different from ordinary bankers in distinctive ways: they were cosmopolitan and international; they were close to governments and were particularly concerned with questions of government debts. . .; they were almost equally devoted to secrecy and the secret use of financial influence in political life. These bankers came to be called international bankers and, more particularly, were known as merchant bankers in England, private bankers in France, and investment bankers in the United States.'
Dr. Quigley shows that the core of control is in the financial dynasties of Europe and America who have exercised political control through the formation of international financial combines. These monopoly money dynasties learned the elementary lesson that all governments must have sources of revenue from which to borrow in times of emergency. By providing such funds, the international bankers could make both kings and democratic leaders tremendously subservient to their will. Quigley names who they are. He tells how they hid the extent of their immense wealth from the public by keeping their firms unincorporated, usually partnerships, offering no shares, no reports, and usually no advertising.
Dr. Quigley traces the immense power and control exercised by the Rothschilds, the Bank of England, J.P. Morgan, and the Rockefellers. By 1900, according to Dr. Quigley, 'the influence of these business leaders was so great that the Morgan and Rockefeller groups acting together, or even Morgan acting alone, could have wrecked the economic system of the country.'
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the American economy had become so dynamic that the major banking dynasties found it increasingly difficult to maintain a tight control. Furthermore, their control was being challenged as a major political issue in national elections. So the Morgan and Rockefeller dynasties decided to follow the pattern of monopoly control over finance established by the Bank of England, that is a PRIVATELY controlled institution which had the APPEARANCE of an official government institution. The result was the Federal Reserve Act, originally plotted in a secret meeting on Jekyl Island in 1910 attended by representatives of the Morgan and Rockefeller banks. The Federal Reserve bill was introduced into the Senate by Senator Nelson Aldrich, grandfather of Governor Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller. The original bill failed because Aldrich was too closely connected with Morgan and Wall Street.
The Morgan-Rockefeller group then realized they had to have Democratic backing in order to erase the Wall Street taint of the bill. The opportunity presented itself during the election of 1912. Desperate to defeat President William Howard Taft (who opposed the Aldrich bill), Wall Street poured funds into the campaigns of both Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt, in order to split the Republicans and assure the election of Wilson.
The operation of the Federal Reserve is one of the most interesting and mysterious combines in the country. Since it was founded in 1913, it has successfully resisted every attempt to conduct an audit of its affairs. Its most recent political activity was to manipulate the interest rates during 1970 to the highest in 100 years which quickly caused a recession. This was blamed on the Republicans, and insured the election of a Democrat Congress. When David Kennedy, the Nixon Secretary of the Treasury, was asked about the credit-tightening policies of the Federal Reserve, he replied: 'It's not my job to approve or disapprove. It is the action of the Federal Reserve.'
2. How the Tax-Exempt Foundations are the Base of Operations. Dr. Quigley tells of the panic the Establishment went into at the formation of the Special Committee to Investigate Tax-Exempt Foundations in 1953 with Congressman Carroll Reece of Tennessee as chairman. In substance, Dr. Quigley admits the truth of the excellent book by Rene A. Wormser called Foundations: Their Power and Influence which detailed the facts about foundations as uncovered by the Reece investigation. Here are some criticisms of tax-exempt foundations given in the Wormser book: a) How they interlock into a monolithic monopoly of power to carry out globalist policies. b) How they develop an elite corps of social engineers with a compulsive drive to remake the world along Socialist lines. c) How the foundation-sponsored Kinsey report was deliberately designed as an attack on Judaic-Christian morality. d) How they imported a Swedish Socialist to produce a study on American Negro which has been used to justify revolutionary activities. e) How they use the ultimatum 'conform or no grant' to subvert and American education. f) How they finance and promote Socialist textbooks. g) How they push Rhodes scholars into Government service. h) How they produce history books which keep Americans from learning the truth. I) How they promote the United Nations as the home base for the Socialist-Communist coalition.
Dr. Quigley explains why the Reece investigation did not have the impact it should have had: 'It soon became clear that people of immense wealth would be unhappy if the investigation went too far and that the most respected newspapers in the country, closely allied with these men of wealth, would not get excited enough about any revelations to make the publicity worthwhile, in terms of votes or campaign contributions.'
GSG offers Foundations: Their Power and Influence, see books.
3. How The Establishment Helped Give China to the Communists. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in 16 volumes of hearings documented beyond any doubt that China was lost to the Communists by the deliberate actions of a group of academic experts on the Far East, and Communist fellow travelers whose work was controlled and coordinated by the Institute of Pacific Relations.
Dr. Quigley adds a new dimension to the China story. He says: 'The influence of the Communists in IPR is well established, but the patronage of Wall Street is less well known.' He shows how the IPR money came from the Carnegie Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and specific Wall Street interests, adding, 'The financial deficits which occurred each year were picked up by financial angels, almost all with close Wall Street connections,' including Frederick Vanderbilt Field, Thomas Lamont, the senior head of J.P. Morgan and Company, and his son, Corliss Lamont.'
Dr. Quigley, in talking about the loss of China, admits the thesis of the great book by John T. Flynn, While You Slept, who was the first to expose how the leading book review journals are loaded to aid the Communists. Dr. Quigley states: 'It is also true that this group, from its control of funds, academic recommendations, and research or publication opportunities, could favor persons who accepted the established consensus and could injure, financially or in professional advancement, persons who did not accept it. It is also true that the established group, by its influence on book reviewing in The New York Times, theHerald Tribune, the Saturday Review, a few magazines, including the liberal weeklies, and in the professional journals, could advance or hamper any specialist's career. It is also true that these things were done in the United States in regard to the Far East by the Institute of Pacific Relations, that this organization had been infiltrated by Communists, and by Communist sympathizers, and that much of this group's influence arose from its access to and control over the flow of funds from foundations to scholarly activities.'
4. The Role of the CFR in the Establishment. Dr. Quigley describes the Council on Foreign Relations as one of several 'front' organizations set up by the inner group for the purpose of advancing its conspiratorial schemes. Dr. Quigley explains more specifically that the Council on Foreign Relations 'was a front for J.P. Morgan and Company.' Some idea of the influence of the Council of Foreign Relations may be gleaned from the fact that there were 74 CFR members in the American delegation to the United Nations Conference at San Francisco in 1945, including Alger Hiss (Communist spy), Harry Dexter White (Soviet agent), Owen Lattimore ('a conscious, articulate instrument of the Soviet international conspiracy'), John J. McCloy (formerly head of the Rockefeller Chase-Manhattan Bank), Harold Stassen, Nelson Rockefeller, John Foster Dulles, Philip Jessup and Dean Acheson.
Internationally, the CFR is interlocked with the Bilderbergers, the Pugwash Conferences, the English-speaking Union, the Pilgrims Society, and the Round Table. Within the United States, CFR members are interlocked with the American Association for the United Nations, the Foreign Policy Association, the World Affairs Council, the Committee for Economic Development, Business Advisory Council, Commission on National Goals, American Assembly, National Planning Association, and Americans for Democratic Action.
5. How the Establishment Controls the Universities. Dr. Quigley explains in detail how for generations the international financiers have dominated American universities through their control of university endowment money.
He tells how Columbia University was dominated by J.P. Morgan and Company. and 'its president, Nicholas Murray Butler, was Morgan's chief spokesman from ivied halls.' Butler once said, 'The world is divided in to three classes of people: a very small group that makes things happen, a somewhat larger group that watches things happen, and the great multitude which never knows what happened.' Dr. Quigley gives many examples of how the international bankers placed their men as presidents of leading universities, including the placement of Dwight Eisenhower as president of Columbia.
Columbia University was the intellectual rostrum of the father of Progressive Education, John Dewey, and his favored disciples, William H. Kilpatrick, Harold O. Rugg, and George S. Counts, author of Dare the Schools Build a New Social Order? which urged teachers to 'deliberately reach for power and then make the most of their conquest.'
6. Establishment Influence on the Election of Presidents. Dr. Quigley tells how and why the Establishment was determined to defeat and destroy Barry Goldwater in 1964, unleashing a torrent of rage against him with such epithets as 'extremist,' 'racist,' 'atomic bomber,' 'trigger happy,' 'warmonger,' and 'psychologically unfit.'
Dr. Quigley tells how the international financiers manipulated the nomination of Dwight Eisenhower at the Republican National Convention in 1952. As Quigley explains, 'The lower-middle-class groups had preferred Senator Taft as their leader. Eisenhower, however, had been preferred by the eastern establishment of old Wall Street, Ivy League, semi-aristocratic Anglophiles whose real strength rested in their control of eastern financial endowments, operating from foundations, academic halls, and other tax-exempt refuges.'
Dr. Quigley explains Establishment support of John F. Kennedy like this: 'Kennedy, despite his Irish Catholicism, was an Establishment figure. This did not arise from his semi-aristocratic attitudes or his Harvard connections . . . These helped, but John Kennedy's introduction to the Establishment arose from his support of Britain, in opposition to his father, in the critical days at the American Embassy in London in 1938- 40. His acceptance into the English Establishment opened its American branch as well.'
In describing the Communist sympathizers and fellow travelers who took over in the United States under the Roosevelt Administration, Dr. Quigley says: 'It must be recognized that the power that these energetic left-wingers exercised was never their own power or Communist power but was ultimately the power of the international financial coterie.'
7. The Influence of Cecil Rhodes. The great and lasting influence of the Englishman, Cecil Rhodes, who had the money to propagandize for the strange ideas he believed in, is spelled out in detail by Dr. Quigley: 'In the middle of 1890s Rhodes had a personal income of at least a million pounds sterling a year (then about $5,000,000) which was spent so freely for his mysterious purposes that he was usually overdrawn on his account . . . These purposes centered on his desire to federate the English-speaking peoples and to bring all the habitable portions of the world under their control. For this purpose Rhodes left part of his great fortune to found the Rhodes Scholarships at Oxford . . .'
Rhodes formed a secret society called the 'Circle of Initiates,' along with other fronts for those who were not on the inside. According to Dr. Quigley, 'The power and influence of the Rhodes-Milner group in British imperial affairs and in foreign policy since 1889, although not widely recognized, can hardly be exaggerated.' For example, Dr. Quigley goes on to show how this group dominated The London Times from 1890 to 1912 and 'has controlled it completely since 1912 (except for the years 1919-1922)
What we call the Eastern Establishment is the American branch of the Rhodes organization. J.P. Morgan and Company was the inner core of command, and the Council on Foreign Relations is its principal front. The Eastern Establishment extended its influence in the press in the same way in the United States as the Rhodes group did in England. According to Dr. Quigley, 'The American branch of this English Establishment extended much of its influence through five American newspapers (The New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Christian Science Monitor, The Washington Post, and the lamented Boston Evening Transcript).'
Dr. Quigley also shows how the Establishment reached out to control the left-wing press as well. He names the Wall Street fortunes which established the New Republic, and says that 'the original purpose for establishing the paper was to provide an outlet for the progressive Left and to guide it quietly in an Anglophile direction. . . . This latter task was entrusted to . . . Walter Lippmann . . . the authentic spokesman in American journalism for the Establishments on both sides of the Atlantic in international affairs.'
8. The One Thing the Establishment Fears. Dr. Quigley describes the conflict between grassroots Americans and the Establishment as 'the Midwest of Tom Sawyer against the cosmopolitan East of J.P. Morgan and Company, of old Siwash against Harvard, of the Chicago Tribune against the Washington Post or The New York Times . . .' He leaves no doubt as to where the real power centers are.
Dr. Quigley admits that nothing panics the international Establishment like the possibility of a threatened exposure. Whenever the public became somewhat aware of the conspiratorial processes, the vast, interlocking power structure of the whole London-Wall Street combine immediately shifted into high gear to cover up their agents and their tracks.
This is why the Establishment has viciously attacked nearly every Congressional investigation. Congressional hearings are the best sources of unvarnished truth we have had in America in the last 35 years. The Establishment turned all their heavy guns against Democrat Congressman Martin Dies, Republican Congressman Carroll Reece, Democrat Senator Pat McCarrran, and Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy because they were opening up the secrets of the conspiracy for the American people to see.
The American people had been nationally alerted to the fact of Communist infiltration of our Government by the Alger Hiss conviction in 1950, and to the fact that our boys were sent off to fight no-win wars in which the Communists had privileged sanctuaries by the Korean War of 1950-52. By the time of the Communist takeover of Cuba in 1959, nearly everyone knew something had to be terribly wrong at the top.
Unfortunately, the Establishment counteroffensive spearheaded by the Reuther Memorandum and the Fulbright Memorandum has been very successful in intimidating American citizens from taking action and spreading information.
However, there has been a steady growth in the number of informed patriots. They are the true 'Hope' of the country. In 1964, 27,000,000 of them proved that they could resist intimidation and insult of every vicious kind, and still stand up and be counted for their convictions.
See books for how to attain Tragedy and Hope or continue reading about The Anglo-American Establishment where Carroll Quigley unravels the story of people who have been a force behind shaping British and American history. Though The Anglo-American Establishment was completed in 1949, it was not published until 1981. Even as a renowned scholar with a best selling book the Evolution of Civilizations, The Anglo- American Establishment was rejected by 15 publishers.
Carroll Quigley states in the preface and introduction:
The Rhodes Scholarships, established by the terms of Cecil Rhodes's seventh will, are known to everyone. What is not so widely known is that Rhodes in five previous wills left his fortune to form a secret society, which was to devote itself to the preservation and expansion of the British Empire. And what does not seem to be known to anyone is that this secret society was created by Rhodes and his principal trustee, Lord Milner, and continues to exist to this day. ...This society has been known at various times as Milner's Kindergarten, as the Round Table Group, as the Rhodes crowd, as The Times crowd, as the All Souls group, and as the Cliveden set. ... This Group is, as I shall show, one of the most important historical facts of the twentieth century. . . .
Facts came to me from sources which I am not permitted to name, and I have mentioned them only where I can produce documentary evidence available to everyone. . . . I feel that the truth has a right to be told, and, once told, can be an injury to no men of good will.
One wintry afternoon in February 1891, three men were engaged in earnest conversation in London. From that conversation were to flow consequences of the greatest importance to the British Empire and to the world as a whole. ... The leader was Cecil Rhodes, fabulously wealthy empire-builder and the most important person in South Africa. The second was William T. Stead, the most famous, and probably also the most sensational, journalist of the day. The third was Reginald Baliol Brett, later known as Lord Esher, friend and confidant of Queen Victoria, and later to be the most influential adviser of King Edward VII and King George V. . . .
This organization has been able to conceal its existence quite successfully, and many of its most influential members, satisfied to possess the reality rather than the appearance of power, are unknown even to close students of British history.