Richard Lynn: Race differences in intelligence: A global

 "The world literature on racial differences in intelligence is
reviewed from three points of view. Firstly, studies using
intelligence tests indicate that Caucasoids in North America,
Europe and Australasia generally obtain mean IQs of around
100. Mongoloids typically obtain slightly higher means in the
range of 100-106. African Negroids obtain mean IQs of around
70, while Negroid-Caucasoids in the United States and Britain
obtain means of about 85. Amerindians and the South East
Asian races typically obtain means in the range of 85-95.

 A second source of evidence comes from studies of reaction
times which provide measures of the neurological efficiency
of the brain. These studies show that Mongoloids have the
fastest reaction times followed by Caucasoids and then by
Negroids. Thirdly, the races can be assessed for their
contributions to civilization. Here the Caucasoids and the
Mongoloids have made the most significant advances both
in the foundation of the early civilizations and in more recent

 The mean IQs of Negroids have invariably been found to be
substantially lower than those of Caucasoids. Many studies
have been done in the United States and by the mid-1960's
Shuey (1966) was able to present a summary of 362 investigations.
The overall mean IQ of American Negroids was approximately
85. Subsequent studies in the United States such as those of
Coleman (1966), Broman, Nichols and Kennedy (1975) and
others have confirmed that this is about the right figure.

 Negroid-Caucasoid Hybrids

 As noted, virtually all American Negroids are hybrids with some
Caucasoid ancestry. The same is probably the case with West Indian
and British Negroids. Although this has never been documented,
West Indian Negroids lived as slaves on white owned plantations
from the 17th to the 19th century in similar conditions to those
of Negroids in the United States. There was undoubtedly a certain
amount of interbreeding between white estate owners and Negroid
slaves, which gave rise to a number of Negroid-Caucasoid hybrids
whose existence as a considerable class was noted by Anthony
Trollope in his Tour of the West Indies.

 Mean IQs of various Negroid-Caucasoid Hybrid Populations


 Edward Miller: Paternal Provisioning versus Mate-Seeking in
Human Populations

 "Negroids evolved in the warmest climate (tropical Africa),
Mongoloids in the coldest (the North China-Siberia area), and
Caucasoids in intermediate climates (Europe and the Middle

 Negroids are reported (by Rushton) to be the most aggressive
and Mongoloids least aggressive (Caucasoids intermediate)...

 Very similar comments can be made regarding dominance,
where Negroids are reported to be the strongest seekers of
dominance and Mongoloids least (Caucasoids intermediate)...

 Mongoloids are reported to be the most anxious, and Negroids
least (with Caucasoids in between). This is closely related to
dominance seeking and aggression, in that high anxiety deters
dominance seeking and aggression. The more prone an individual
is to anxiety, the less likely he is to seek additional matings
beyond his first wife...

 Closely related to impulsivity is the ability to delay gratification.
Mischel (1958, 1961c, 1971, p. 127) found a racial difference
in preference for delayed gratification. Trinidad Indians (i.e.
India origin) children would wait longer for a reward than Negro
children, although he interpreted this as reflecting the greater
absence of fathers among the Negro children. As is common
in Negroid populations (see below), many of the Negroes
lacked a father in the home, while few Indians lacked a father
in the home...

 Criminal activity is closely related to behavior restraint, for
which the evidence is that Negroids are highest, Mongoloids
lowest, and Caucasoids in between (for documentation see
Wilson & Herrnstein, 1985; Ellis, 1988, p. 532; Jaynes &
Williams, 1989, chap. 9; Rushton, 1990a). Paternal investment
theory would explain high crime rates as resulting from high
aggressivity and low empathy, altruism, and rule following
behavior, traits that contributed to tropical reproductive

 The form of behavioral restraint most sensitive to natural
selection is sexual restraint. With regard to a wide range of
sex related variables, including marital instability, Rushton
 (1988) and Rushton & Bogaert (1987) show that Mongoloids
are the most sexually restrained, and Negroids least, with
Caucasoids intermediate...

 Rushton and Bogaert (1987) document differences in sexual
behavior. Besides a literature review, they reanalyzed the Kinsey
data on sexual behavior in American whites and blacks. This
showed greater sexual activity in blacks than in whites. For
instance, the black frequency for coitus in their first marriage
was 3.83 times per week for those aged 21-25 versus 3.11 for
similar whites...

 One consequence of higher levels of puberty causing hormones
could be greater development of the sex organs. Rushton and
Bogaert (1987)  use the Kinsey data to document longer penises
and greater circumference of penises in blacks than in whites.
From other sources they find Mongoloids to have shorter penises
than Caucasoids...

 There are racial differences in body build. Negroes have a more
masculine body build than Caucasians (Laska-Mierzejewska, 1982).
The masculine body build implies strong accentuation of such
masculine characteristics as a large chest, and muscular body.
Negro soldiers (males) have been found in two studies to be
more mesomorphic (and less endomorphic) than white soldiers,
with the difference being more than one standard deviation
(Damon, Bleibtreu, Elliot, & Giles, 1962)...

 An interesting set of statistically significant differences in muscle
characteristics has been found between black and white sedentary
males (Ama, Simonau, Boulay, Serresse, Theriault, and Bouchard,
1986). African blacks were found to have less type I muscle fibers,
more type IIa and lower activities in enzymes catalyzing reactions
in phosphagenic and lactase dehydrogenase metabolic pathways.
These were interpreted as likely to be inherited, and suggesting
that blacks would exhibit better performance in sports requiring
a short duration of exertion...

 Negroids have shorter lives than Caucasoids, who have shorter
lives than Mongoloids. For instance, U. S. whites have a life span
estimated at 76.1 years versus 69.1 years for U. S. blacks (U. S.
Department of Health and Human Services, 1993). If testosterone
shortens life (Hamilton, 1948), as it appears to do (shown by the
shorter life span of males than females, and of normal males
compared to castrated males), differential testosterone levels
could explain the life span ranking.

 Part of the shorter Negroid life span reflects more violent and
accidental deaths, which could result directly from higher

 Races differ in average age at sexual maturity (Rushton and
Bogaert, 1987, p. 537). Negroids mature earlier than Caucasoids,
and Caucasoids earlier than Mongoloids. Rushton interprets this a
s showing less K selection in Negroids...

 Lynn (1990) has argued that differences in testosterone could
explain many of the observed racial differences, including the
racial ordering in prostate cancer rates (Negroids highest, Caucasoids
intermediate, Mongoloids lowest). Testosterone was 19% higher in
black college students than in white students (Ross, Bernstein, Judd,
Hanisch, Pike, & Henderson, 1986). Ellis and Nyborg (1992) have
documented higher male testosterone levels in black veterans than
in white veterans, although the magnitude of the difference
appears too small to explain much of the behavioral difference..."


 Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations

 University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland

 The causes of the inequalities in income and wealth between
nations have been discussed for some two and a half centuries.
In 1748 Montesquieu published De l'Esprit des Lois in which
he proposed that temperate climates were more favorable to
economic development than tropical climates. In 1776 this
problem was discussed by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations,
in which he proposed that the skills of the population are the
principal factor responsible for national differences in incomes
and wealth.

 We believe it has never been suggested that national differences
in intelligence might play some role in national differences in
economic development. It is widely assumed that the peoples of
all nations have the same average level of intelligence. For instance,
Kofi Annan, the United Nations Secretary General, asserted in April
2000 that intelligence "is one commodity equally distributed among
the world's people" (Hoyos and Littlejohns, 2000). It is known in
psychology that this is incorrect and that there are large differences
in average levels of intelligence between different nations. Reviews
of the literature have shown that in relation to average IQs of 100
in Britain and the United States, the peoples of north east Asia have
average IQs of around 105 and the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa
have average IQs of around 70 (Lynn, 1991).

 In view of these differences, it seems a reasonable hypothesis that
national differences in intelligence may be a factor contributing to
national differences in wealth.


 Data on National IQs Obtained from the Colored and Standard
Progressive Matrices

 IQs for 185 countries

 Intelligence and the Wealth and Poverty of Nations

 Congo (Brazzaville) 73

 Congo (Zaire) 68

 Ethiopia 67

 Ghana 62

 Kenya 72

 Nigeria 69

 Zambia 75

 Zimbabwe 70